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## Union Bound, Hoeffding Inequality and Some Bounds in Learning Theory – Part I

Well again parts of my notes (modified suitably to be blog posts) for a discussion session!

This post would be the first in a series of four posts. The objective of each post would be as follows:

1. This post would introduce Learning Theory, the bias-variance trade-off and sum up the need of learning theory.

2. This would discuss two simple lemmas : The Union Bound and the Hoeffding inequality and then use them to get to some very deep results in learning theory. It would also introduce and discuss Empirical Risk Minimization.

3. Continuing from the previous discussion this post would derive results on uniform convergence, tie the discussions into a theorem. From this theorem we would have made formal the bias-variance trade-off discussed in the first post.

4. Will talk about VC Dimension and the VC bound.

Basically all the results are derived using two very simple lemmas, hence the name of these posts.

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Introduction:

Learning theory helps give a researcher applying machine learning algorithms  some rules of the thumb that tell how to best apply the algorithms that he/she has learnt.

Dr Andrew Ng likens knowing machine learning algorithms to a carpenter acquiring a set of tools. However the difference between a good carpenter and not so good one is the skill in using those tools. In choosing which one to use and how. In the same way Learning Theory gives a “machine-learnist” some crude intuitions about how a ML algorithm would work and helps in applying them better.

A lot of people still think of learning theory as a method for getting papers published (I’d like to use that method, I need papers ;-), as it is considered abstruse by many and not of much practical value. A good refutation of this tendency can be seen here on John Langford’s fantastic web-log.

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As put in a popular tutorial by Olivier Bousquet, the process of inductive learning can be summarized as:

1. Observe a phenomenon.

2. Construct a model of that phenomenon.

3. Make predictions using this model.

Dr Bousquet puts it very tersely that the above process can actually said to be the aim of ALL natural sciences. Machine learning aims to automate the process and learning theory tries to formalize it. I think the above gives a reasonable idea about what learning theory deals with.

Learning theory formalizes terms like generalization, over-fitting and under-fitting. This series of posts (read notes) aims to introduce these terms and then jump to a recap of some important error bounds in learning theory.

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Training Error, Generalization Error and The Bias-Variance Tradeoff:

For simplicity let’s take something as simple as linear regression. And since I want this piece to be accessible, I assume no knowledge of linear regression either.

Linear Regression essentially models the relationship between one variable $X$ and another variable $Y$ such that the model itself depends linearly on the unknown parameters to be estimated from the data. Let’s have a look at what this means:

Suppose you have a habit of collecting weird datasets and you end up collecting up a dataset that gives the circumference of biceps of many men and the distance a javelin is thrown by each of them. And you want to predict for an unknown individual, given the circumference of his biceps how far can he throw the javelin.

Ofcourse there would be a number of reasons that would affect the distance a javelin would go, such as skill (which is essentially non-quantitative?), height, the kid of footwear worn, run-up distance, state of health etc. These would be the some of the many features that would affect that end result (distance a javelin is thrown). What I essentially mean is that the circumference of the biceps isn’t a realistic feature to predict how far a javelin can be thrown. But let’s assume that there is only one feature and it can make reasonable predictions. This over-simplification is only made so that the process can be visualized in a graph.

Suppose you collect about 80 such examples (which you call the training examples) and plot your data as such:

Now the problem given to you is: Given you have the bicep-circumference measurement of an unknown individual, predict how far he can throw the javelin.

How would one do it?

What we would do is to fit in some curve in the above training set (the above plot). And when we have to make a prediction we simply plug in that value in our curve and find the corresponding value for the distance. Something illustrated below.

The curve can be represented in a number of ways. However, if the curve was to be represented linearly (that’s why it’s called linear regression) it could be written as :

$h(x) = \theta_0 + \theta_1 x$

Where $h(x)$ is the hypothesis, $\theta_0$ and  $\theta_1$ are unknown parameters which are to be learnt from the data and $x$ is the input feature. It is noteworthy that this is like the slope intercept form of the line.

In the above, for simplicity I considered only one feature, there could be many more. In the more general case:

$h_\theta(x) = \theta_0 + \theta_1 x_1 + \dotsb + \theta_i x_i \cdots (1)$

The $\theta$‘s are called the parameters (to be learnt from the data) that will decide the nature of the curve.

We see that the equation involves features of the training examples ($x$‘s), therefore using this, the task of the learning algorithm will be to decide the most optimum values of $\theta_i$ using the training set. This can be easily done by something like Gradient Descent.

For any new example, we’d have the features $x$ and parameters would already be known by running gradient descent using the training set. We simply have to plug in the value of $x$ in equation $(1)$ to get a prediction.

To sum up : Like I mentioned, we use the training set to fit in a optimal curve and then try to predict unseen inputs by simply plugging in its values to the “equation of the curve”.

Now, it goes without saying that we could fit in a “simple” model to the training set or a more “complex” model. A simple model would be linear say something like:

$y=\theta_0 + \theta_1x$

and a complex model could be something like this:

$y=\theta_0 + \theta_1 x + \dotsb + \theta_5 x^5$.

It’s to be noted that in the above the same feature $x$ is used in different ways, the second model uses $x$ to create more features such as $x^2, x^3$, and so on. Clearly the second representation is more complex than the first as it will exploit more patterns in the data (it has more parameters).

However this increase in complexity can lead to problems, in the same way if the model is too simple it can lead to problems. This is illustrated below:

[Fig 1 (Left) and Fig 2 (Right)]

The figure on the left has a “simple model” fit into the training set. Clearly there are patterns in the data that the model would never take into account, no matter how big the training set goes. Paraphrasing this in more concrete terms, it’s clear that the relationship between $x$ and $y$ is not linear. So if we try to fit in a linear model to it, not matter how much we train it, there would always be some patterns in the data that the model would fail to subsume.

What this means is, what is learnt from the training set will not be generalised well to unknown examples (this is because, it might be that the unknown example comes from that part of the distribution that the model fails to account for and thus the prediction for it would be very inaccurate).

The figure on the right has a “complex” model fit into the same set, clearly the model fits the data very well. But again it is not a good predictor as it does not represent the general nature of the spread of the data but rather takes into account the idiosyncrasies of the same. This model would make very good predictions on the data from the training set itself, but it would not generalize well to unknown examples.

A more appropriate fit would be something like this :

Now we can move to a definition of the generalization error, The generalization error of a hypothesis is its expected error on examples that are not from the training set. For an example on understanding generalization refer to the part labeled “Van-Gogh Chagall and Pigeons” in this post.

The models shown in figures 1 and 2 have HIGH generalization errors. However each suffer from entirely different problems.

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Bias : Like already mentioned : In the model shown in fig. 1, no matter how much the model is trained, There would always be some patterns in the data that the model would fail to capture. This is because the model has a high BIAS. Bias of a model is the expected generalization error even if we were to fit in a very large training-set.

Thus the linear model shown in figure 1 suffers from high bias and will underfit the data.

Variance : Apart from bias there is another component that has a bearing on the generalization error. That is the variance of the model fit into the training set.

This is shown in fig. 2. We see that even though that the model fits in very well in the training set, there is the risk that we are fitting patterns that are idiosyncratic to the training examples and may not represent the general pattern between $x$ and $y$.

Since we might be fitting spurious patters and exaggerating minor fluctuations in the data, such a model would still give a high generalization error and will over-fit the data. In such a case we say that the model has a high variance.

The Trade-off : When deciding on a model to fit onto the training set, there is a trade-off between the bias and the variance. If either is high that would mean the generalizing ability of the model would be low (generalization error would be high). In other words, if the model is too simple i.e if it has too few parameters it would have a high bias and if the model is too complex it would have a high variance. While deciding on a model we have to strike a balance between the two.

A very famous example that illustrates this trade-off goes like this:

[Suppose there is an exacting biologist who studies and classifies green trees in detail. He would be the example of an over-trained or over-fit model and would declare if he sees a tree with non-green leaves like above that it is not a tree at all]

[An under-trained or under-fit model would be like the above biologist’s lazy brother, who on seeing a cucumber which is green declares that it is a tree]

Both of the above have poor generalization. We wish to select a model that has an appropriate trade-off between the two.

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So why do we need Learning Theory?

Learning theory is an interesting subject in its own right. It, however also hones our intuitions on how to apply learning algorithms properly  giving us a set of rules of the thumb that guide us on how to apply learning algorithms well.

Learning theory can answer quite a few questions :

1. In the previous section there was a small discussion on bias and variance and the trade-off between the two. The discussion sounds logical, however there is no meaning to it unless it is formalized. Learning theory can formalize the bias variance trade-off. This helps as we can then make a choice on choosing the model with just the right bias and variance.

2. Learning Theory leads to model selection methods by which we can choose automatically what model would be appropriate for a certain training set.

3. In Machine Learning, models are fit on the training set. So what we essentially get is the training error. But what we really care about is the generalization ability of the model or the ability to give good predictions on unseen data.

Learning Theory relates the training error on the training set and the generalization error and it would tell us how doing well on the training set might help us get better generalization.

4. Learning Theory actually proves conditions in which the learning algorithms will actually work well. It proves bounds on the worst case performance of models giving us an idea when the algorithm would work properly and when it won’t.

The next post would answer some of the above questions.

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## Face Recognition/Authentication Using Support Vector Machines

This post is part of a series on face recognition, I have been posting on face recognition for a while. There would be at least 7-8 more posts in the near future on the topic. Though I can not promise a time frame within which all would be up.

Previous Related Posts:

3. A Huge Collection of Datasets (Post links to a number of face image databases)

This post would reference two of my posts. One on SVMs and the other on Face Recognition using Eigenfaces.

Note: This post focuses on the idea behind using SVMs for face recognition and authentication. In future posts I will cover the various packages that can be used to implement SVMs and how to go about using them, and specifically for face recognition. The same can be easily extended to other similar problems such as content based retrieval systems, speech recognition, character or signature verification systems as well.

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Difference between Face Authentication (Verification) and Face Recognition (also called identification):

This might seem like a silly thing to start with. But for the sake of completeness, It is a good point to start with.

Face Authentication can be considered a subset of face recognition. Though due to the small difference there are a few non-concurrent parts in both the systems.

Face Authentication (also called verification) involves a one to one check that compares an input image (also called a query image, probe image or simply probe) with only the image (or class) that the user claims to be. In simple words, if you stand in front of a face authentication system and claim to be a certain user, the system will ONLY check if you are that user or not.

Face Recognition (or Identification) is another thing, though ofcourse related. It involves a one to many comparison of the input image (or probe or query image) with a template library. In simple words, in a face recognition system the input image will be compared with ALL the classes and then a decision will be made so as to identify to WHO the the input image belongs to. Or if it does not belong to the database at all.

Like I just said before, though both Authentication and Recognition are related there are some differences in the method involved, which are obvious due to the different nature of both.

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A Touch-Up of Support Vector Machines:

A few posts ago I wrote a post on why Support Vector Machines had this rather “seemingly” un-intuitive name. It had a brief introduction to SVMs as well. For those completely new to Support Vector Machines this post should help. I’ll still add a little for this post.

Support Vector Machine is a binary classification method that finds the optimal linear decision surface between two classes. The decision surface is nothing but a weighted combination of the support vectors. In other words, the support vectors decide the nature of the boundary between the two classes. Take a look at the image below:

The SVM takes in labeled training examples $\{\; x_i, y_i \}$, where $x_i$ represents the features and $y_i$ the class label, that could be either 1 or -1.  On training we obtain a set of Support Vectors $m$, multipliers $\alpha_i$, $y_i$and the term $b$. To understand what $b$ does, look at the above figure. It is somewhat like the intercept term $c$ in the equation of a straight line, $y = mx + c$. The terms $w$ and $x$ determine the orientation of the hyperplane while $b$ determines the actual position of the hyperplane.

As is indicated in the diagram, the linear decision surface is :

$w\star x + b = 0 \qquad(1)$

where $\displaystyle w = \sum_{i=1}^m \alpha_i y_i s_i$

where $s_i$ are the support vectors.

The above holds when the data (classes) is linearly separable. Sometimes however, that’s not the case. Take the following example:

The two classes are indicated by the two different colors. The data is clearly not LINEARLY separable.

However when mapped onto two dimensions, a linear decision surface between them can be made with ease.

Take another example. In this example the data is not linearly separable in 2-D, so they are mapped onto three dimensions where a linear decision surface between the classes can be made.

By Cover’s Theorem it is more likely that a data-set not linearly separable in some dimension would be linearly separable  in a higher dimension. The above two examples are simple, sometimes the data might be linearly separable at very high dimensions, maybe at infinite dimensions.

But how do we realize it? This done by employing the beautiful Kernel Trick. In place of the inner products we use a suitable Mercer Kernel. I don’t believe it is a good idea to discuss kernels here, or it will be a needless digression from face recognition. I promise to discuss it some time later.

Thus the non-linear decision surface changes from $\qquad(1)$ to:

$\displaystyle w = \sum_{i=1}^m \alpha_i y_i K(s_i, x) +b = 0 \qquad(2)$

Where $K$ represents a Kernel. It could be a Radial Basis (Gaussian) Kernel, A linear Kernel, A polynomial Kernel or a custom Kernel. :)

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Face Authentication is a two class problem. As I have mentioned earlier, here the system is presented with a claimed identity and it has to make a decision whether the claimant is really that person or not. The SVM in such applications will have to be fed with the images of one person, which will constitute one class and the other class will consist of images of other people other than that person. The SVM will then generate a linear decision surface.

For a input/probe image $p$, the identity is accepted if:

$w \star p + b < 0$

Or it is rejected. We can parameterize the decision surface by modifying the above as:

$w \star x + b = \Delta$

Then, a claim will be accepted if for a probe, $p$

$w \star p + b < \Delta$

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Now face recognition is a $\mathcal{K}$ class problem. Where $\mathcal{K}$ is the number of classes (or individuals).  Whereas the traditional Support Vector Machine is a binary classifier. So we’ll make a few changes to the way we are representing the faces to suit our classifier. I will come back to this in a while.

Feature Extraction: The faces will have to be represented by some appropriate features, these could be weights obtained using the Eigenfaces method, or using gabor features or anything else. I have written a post earlier that talked of a face recognition system based on Eigenfaces. I would direct the reader to check face representation using Eigenfaces there.

Using Eigenfaces, each probe $\Phi$could be represented as a vector of weights:

$\Omega = \begin{bmatrix}w_1\\w_2\\ \vdots\\w_M \end{bmatrix}$

After obtaining such a weight vector for the input or probe image and for all the other images stored in the library, we were simply finding the Euclidean or the Mahalanobis distance of the weight vector of the probe image with those of the images in the template library.  And then were recognizing the probe as a face that gave the minimum score provided it was below a certain threshold. I have discussed this is much detail there. And since I have, I would not discuss this again here.

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Representation in Difference Space:

SVMs are binary classifiers, that is – they give the class which might be 1 or -1, so we would have to modify the representation of faces a little bit than what we were doing in that previous post to make it somewhat more desirable. In the previous approach that is “a view based or face space approach”, each image was encoded separately. Here, we would change the representation and encode faces into a difference space. The difference space takes into account the dissimilarities between faces.

In the difference space there can be two different classes.

1. The class that encodes the dissimilarities between different images of the same person,

2. The other class encodes the dissimilarities between images of other people. These two classes are then given to a SVM which then generates a decision surface.

As  I wrote earlier, Face recognition traditionally can be thought of as a $\mathcal{K}$ class problem and face authentication can be thought of as a $\mathcal{K}$ instances two class problem. To reduce it to a two class problem we formulate the problem into a difference space as I have already mentioned.

Now consider a training set $\mathcal{T} = \{ \;t_1, \ldots, t_M\}$ having ${M}$ training images belonging to $\mathcal{K}$ individuals. Each individual can have more than one image, that means $M > \mathcal{K}$ ofcourse. It is from $\mathcal{T}$ that we generate the two classes I mentioned above.

1. The within class differences set. This set takes into account the differences in the images of the same class or individual. In more formal terms:

$\mathcal{C}_1 = \{ \; t_i - t_j | t_i \backsim t_j \}$

Where $t_i$ and $t_j$ are images and $t_i \backsim t_j$ indicates that they belong to the same person.

This set contains the differences not just for one individual but for all $\mathcal{K}$ individuals.

2. The between class differences set. This set gives the dissimilarities of different images of different individually. In more formal terms:

$\mathcal{C}_2 = \{ \; t_i - t_j | t_i \nsim t_j\}$

Where $t_i$ and $t_j$ are images and $t_i \nsim t_j$ indicates that they do not belong to the same person.

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Face Authentication:

For Authentication the incoming probe $p$ and a claimed identity $i$ is presented.

Using this, we first find out the similarity score:

$\delta = \displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^m \alpha_i y_i K(s_i, ClaimedID - p) +b$

We then accept this claim if it lies below a certain threshold $\Delta$ or else reject it. I have discussed the need for a threshold at the end of this post, please have a look. $\Delta$ is to be found heuristically.

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Face Recognition:

Consider a set of images $\mathcal{T} = \{ \;t_1, \ldots, t_M\}$, and a probe $p$ which is to be indentified.

We take $p$ and score it with every image in the set $t_i$:

$\delta = \displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^m \alpha_i y_i K(s_i, t_i - p) + b$

The image with the lowest score but below a threshold is recognized. I have written at the end of this post explaining why this threshold is important. This threshold is mostly chose heuristically.

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References and Important Papers

1. Face Recognition Using Eigenfaces, Matthew A. Turk and Alex P. Pentland, MIT Vision and Modeling Lab, CVPR ‘91.

2. Eigenfaces Versus Fischerfaces : Recognition using Class Specific Linear Projection, Belhumeur, Hespanha, Kreigman, PAMI ‘97.

3. Eigenfaces for Recognition, Matthew A. Turk and Alex P. Pentland, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience ‘91.

4. Support Vector Machines Applied to Face Recognition, P. J. Phillips, Neural Information Processing Systems ’99.

5. The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory (Book), Vladimir Vapnik, Springer ’99.

6. A Tutorial on Support Vector Machines for Pattern Recognition, Christopher J. C. Burges, Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, ’99

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